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Neutrophil activation in patients treated with endovascular therapy is associated with unfavorable outcomes and mitigated by intravenous thrombolysis

Journal of NeuroInterventional Surgery-April 2023

Benjamin Maïer, Lucas Di Meglio, Jean-Philippe Desilles, Mialitiana Solo Nomenjanahary, François Delvoye, Maeva Kyheng, Perrine Boursin, Véronique Ollivier, Sébastien Dupont, Thomas Rambaud, Mylène Hamdani, Julien Labreuche, Raphaël Blanc, Michel Piotin, Jean-Michel Halimi, Mikaël Mazighi, Benoit Ho-Tin-Noe, on behalf of the NEUTROSTROKE investigators


Background Accumulating evidence indicates that neutrophil activation (NA) contributes to microvascular thromboinflammation in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to a large vessel occlusion. Preclinical data have suggested that intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) before endovascular therapy (EVT) could dampen microvascular thromboinflammation. In this study we investigated the association between NA dynamics and stroke outcome, and the impact of IVT on NA in patients with AIS treated with EVT.

Methods A single-center prospective study was carried out, including patients treated with EVT for whom three blood samples (before, within 1 hour, 24 hours post-EVT) were drawn to measure plasma myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentration as a marker of NA. Unfavorable outcome was defined as a modified Rankin score of 3–6 at 3 months.

Results Between 2016 and 2020, 179 patients were included. The plasma MPO concentration peaked significantly 1 hour post-EVT (median increase 21.0 ng/mL (IQR −2.1–150)) and returned to pre-EVT baseline values 24 hours after EVT (median change from baseline −0.8 ng/mL (IQR −7.6–6.7)). This peak was strongly associated with unfavorable outcomes at 3 months (aOR 0.53 (95% CI 0.34 to 0.84), P=0.007). IVT before EVT abolished this 1 hour post-EVT MPO peak. Changes in plasma MPO concentration (baseline to 1 hour post-EVT) were associated with unfavorable outcomes only in patients not treated with IVT before EVT (aOR 0.54 (95% CI 0.33 to 0.88, P=0.013). However, we found no significant heterogeneity in the associations between changes in plasma MPO concentration and outcomes.

Conclusions A peak in plasma MPO concentration occurs early after EVT and is associated with unfavorable outcomes. IVT abolished the post-EVT MPO peak and may modulate the association between NA and outcomes.